|Completion:||15 September 1830|
|Function / usage:||
Railroad (railway) line
|total length||50 km|
|number of tracks||2|
|track gauge||1 435 mm|
Agitation for improved communication between seaport Liverpool and Manchester, capital of the textile region and a major engineering centre.
The merchants of Liverpool and Manchester look for a mode of transportation that is less costly than the canal or roads linking the two cities.
A provisional committee is created. William James visits George Stephenson working on the Stockton & Darlington Railway at the time.
Edward Pease, Michael Longbridge, George Stephenson and his son Robert create the first company to build locomotives — «Robert Stephenson & Company» — at Forth Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Henry Booth (1789-1869) and Lester Ellis joint the committee.
George Stephenson becomes the company engineer.
|20 May 1824||
The committee chooses to use steam engines. Henry Booth estimates the cost of the railroad line with double track at £300,000.
|29 October 1824||
A first brochure published by the Liverpool & Manchester Company estimates the necessary capital at £400,000 to be divided into stocks of £100. It is signed by Henry Booth, president of the company.
A subscription is issued at £3 per part. Iimportant land owners as well as the canal operators are opposed to the project.
21 March 1825
— 1 June 1825
A first bill is rejected by a committee of the House of the Commons because of the incapacity of George Stephenson to answer questions satisfactorily. He is replaced by George Rennie (1791-1866) and his brother John (1794-1874), sons of John Rennie (1761-1821), engineer with a good reputation, with their assistant Charles Blacker Vignoles to execute a new study and to strengthen the company's case. The promoters of the project adopt a more southerly track alignment which increases the costs from £400,000 to £510,000.
A new bill is presented to parliament with a list of subscribers:
George Stephenson is hired back as engineer for an annual salary of £1000.
|5 May 1826||
The bill is passed in parliament with a vote of 88 to 41. It imposes a limit on dividends of 10% or if they are superior to limit the fares. The Liverpool & Manchester Railway Company is authorized to issue 5,100 stocks of £100 value. The government grants a reimbursable credit of £100.000.
The commissioners in charge of paying out the £100.000 credit send Telford to supervise the construction. He criticizes Stephenson's methods and his authorization to also act as entrepreneur.
A new bill is passed by Parliament allowing the company to emitt 5,100 stocks of £25 for the purchase of wagons, hangars, depots, etc.
The company managers ask Stephenson, Locke, Walker to Rastrick to inquire amongst the different railroads across the country as to the merits of locomotives versus fixed machines.
|6 October 1829||
In front of a crow of 10,000 people, the locomotive "The Rocket" (built by George and Robert Stephenson) wins the Rainhill race beating "Sans Pareil" built by Timothy Hackworth and "Novelty" of Braithwaite and John Ericson.
|15 September 1830||
Inauguration of the line n the presence of the prime minister, the Duke of Wellington, and a large number of dignitaries who take part in the procession of 8 locomotives ["The Northumbrian" — conducted by George Stephenson, "The Phoenix" — conducted by Robert Stephenson, "The Rocket" — conducted by Joseph Locke, "The Conet" — conducted by Allcard, "The Dart" — conducted by Thomas Gooch, "The Arrow" — conducted by Frederick Swanwick]. Popular Liverpool member of parliament William Huskisson is killed after stepping in front of a train.
The Samson locomotive pulls a convoy of 164 tonnes in 2 hours and a half from Liverpool to Manchester.
Henry Booth publishes the first regulatory documents for the railroad line difining the colors of the signals.
After a conductor's strike the company guarantees a minimum wage.
The trip takes 1 and a quarter of an hour.
|19 January 1841||
He organizes a conference of the presidents and managers of railroads.
Relevant Web Sites
- Innovative or derivative? The design of the bridge structures on the worlds first intercity railway between Liverpool and Manchester. Presented at: 6th International Congress on Construction History (6ICCH 2018), July 9-13, 2018, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 457-464. (2018):
- The last journey of William Huskisson. Faber & Faber, London (United Kingdom). (2003):
- The Rainhill Trials. The Birth of Commercial Rail. Little, Brown/Time Warner, London (United Kingdom). (2004):
- Tracks Across the Irwell: From the Liverpool & Manchester Railway to the Ordsall Chord. In: Industrial Archaeology Review, v. 40, n. 2 (2 February 2018), pp. 74-87. (2018):
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