Smart wetting of permeable pavements as an evaporative-cooling measure for improving the urban climate during heat waves
|Published in:||Journal of Building Physics, April 2021, n. 1, v. 45|
An urban microclimate model is used to design a smart wetting protocol for multilayer street pavements in order to maximize the evaporative cooling effect as a mitigation measure for thermal discomfort during heat waves. The microclimate model is built upon a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for solving the turbulent air, heat and moisture flow in the air domain of a street canyon. The CFD model is coupled to a model for heat and moisture transport in porous urban materials and to a radiative exchange model, determining the net solar and thermal radiation on each urban surface. A two-layer pavement system, previously optimized for maximal evaporative cooling applying the principles of capillary pumping and capillary break, is considered to design a smart wetting protocol answering the questions “when,” “how much,” and “how long” a pavement should be artificially wetted. It was found for the current optimized pavement solutions that a daily amount of 6 mm wetting over 10 min in the morning, preferentially between 8:00 and 10:00, guarantees a maximal evaporative cooling for 24 h during a heat wave.
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