A low-order canyon model to estimate the influence of canyon shape on the maximum urban heat island effect
|Published in:||Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, October 2012, n. 4, v. 33|
A simple mathematical model of an urban canyon is developed. The canyon model consists of horizontal and vertical slabs providing thermal storage for heat and absorption of and shielding from solar radiation and long wave radiation to the sky. The model is compared to a horizontal slab in a rural location to examine the effect of the canyon shape. The results show the same trend as measurements by others, with increasing urban heat island (UHI) effect with increasing canyon aspect ratio. The model is then used to determine the maximum UHI effect by producing a simple algebraic equation. This compares well with measurements in Greater Manchester of canyon and rural temperatures although some empirical adjustments are required. The strong influence of cloud cover is shown by the model and measurements as are the canyon shape and the ground temperature.
Practical applications: The model is simple and developed in terms applicable to building services engineers, using ventilation rates through the canyon. It also does not require more than the standard weather data available in a CIBSE Test Reference Year or a Design Summer Year. From this model, the UHI effect can be developed to adjust the data from a rural site to that of an urban and city centre site. This is useful for building designers to take account of the UHI effect which they cannot do at present. This would also be useful for UKCP09 data which have been released.
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