Layered Grouting Technology Based on a Comprehensive Water-to-Cement Ratio for the Overlying Loess Stratum of Urban Shallow Tunnels
|Médium:||article de revue|
|Publié dans:||Advances in Civil Engineering, janvier 2020, v. 2020|
Different from sand and clay, loess has special engineering properties; hence, existing soil grouting theories are not suitable for the disaster treatment of shallow loess tunnels. In this study, a fine grouting reinforcement test system was developed, and the Yuhan Road tunnel overlying loess was used as the injection medium. An orthogonal test based on slurry dry density, moisture content, water-to-cement ratio, and grouting pressure was conducted. Results revealed that the loess samples have high integrity after grouting, and the cohesion and compressive strength improved significantly. The stress-strain curve showed that the strengthened samples have greater ultimate and residual strengths than samples before grouting. Through a range analysis, it was determined that water-to-cement ratio and moisture content are the main factors affecting loess cohesion and compressive strength. Therefore, a comprehensive test of the water-to-cement ratio and moisture content as a single variable was conducted. It was found that their influence on loess cohesion and compressive strength is not a single linear relationship but a combined balance. To characterize the joint effect of water in loess and in slurry on reinforcement, the concept of a comprehensive water-to-cement ratio is proposed, and the cohesion and compressive strength curves with respect to this ratio were drawn. An optimal comprehensive water-to-cement ratio, which corresponds to the maximum cohesion or compressive strength, was found. Based on this ratio, we further propose a method to calculate the water-to-cement ratio of slurry and suitable grouting amount for the Yuhan Road tunnel reinforcement project, in which all solution parameters can be measured via field tests. In the project, a surface layered grouting scheme, based on the optimal comprehensive water-to-cement ratio, was designed. After grouting, loess strength was improved significantly, permeability was reduced greatly, and the overall reinforcement effect was suitable; these results provide a reference for similar projects.
|Copyright:||© 2020 Teng Yang et al.|
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