Nineteenth-century stone protection: The invention and early research on fluosilicates and their dispersion into Europe


Medium: conference paper
Language(s): en 
Conference: 6th International Congress on Construction History (6ICCH 2018), July 9-13, 2018, Brussels, Belgium
Published in:
Page(s): 999-1004
Abstract: The nineteenth century, with its industrialization and confidence in science, sees the introduction of a wide range of synthetic products for the protection (waterproofing, consolidation) of porous building materials such as stone, brick, mortar and plaster, including fluosilicates (fluates) ethylsilicates, waterglass, Ba-hydroxides and many more, rapidly replacing the traditional limewater and linseed oil. Especially fluates, invented by Jacques Louis Kessler who changed German-occupied Lorraine for Clermont-Ferrand deeper in France, rapidly spread over Europe. Several early material scientists, like Ludwig von Tetmajer and Hans Hauenschild, performed experiments studying the effect. Especially Hauenschild was instrumental in the spread of the use of fluates. That is why, in later years, in addition to the original Kessler fluates they were called Hauenschildfluates. This paper provides a brief background on the chemical engineer Kessler, discusses early research on the effect of fluates and their introduction in The Netherlands.


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